Dreiser bibliography, 1991

 

“Airmail Interview: Richard Lingeman.” Dreiser Society Newsletter 1.1 (1991): 2-5.

Anderson, Sherwood. Sherwood Anderson’s Secret Love Letters: For Eleanor, A Letter a Day. Ed. Ray Lewis White. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State U P, 1991. 12, 19, 57, 63, 79, 200. Contains letters of Anderson with mentions of Dreiser and opinions of Dreiser’s work. Also published in German; see separate entry, Anderson, Sherwood. Für Eleanor: geheime Briefe an die Geliebte: ein Nachlass von Sherwood Anderson (1994). 

Armstrong, Tim. “The Electrification of the Body at the Turn of the Century.” Textual Practice 5 (1991): 303-25. Explains how in the nineteenth century the fascination with electricity created a new sense of the body as circuitry. Argues that light imagery in Sister Carrie reveals Carrie to be “a desiring machine” and that Clyde’s electrocution in An American Tragedy represents the “absorption” of a human being into “a system of production” indifferent to moral guilt or innocence. See also his Armstrong, Tim. “Electrifying the Body.” Modernism, Technology, and the Body: A Cultural Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 1998.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55.

Bardeleben, Renate von. “Personal, Ethnic, and National Identity: Theodore Dreiser’s Difficult Heritage.” Interdisziplinaritat: Deutsche Sprache und Literature im Spannungsfeld der Kulturen. Festshrift fur Gerhart Mayer zum 65. Geburtstag. Ed. Martin Forstner and Klaus von Schilling. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1991. 319-40. Explores Dreiser’s efforts to come to terms with his German heritage. Focuses on his visit to Germany as recounted in A Traveler at Forty and the uncut typescript of that book. Argues that the memento mori of seeing his own name on a tombstone in Mayen, his father’s birthplace, constitutes the book’s structural and emotional center and marks Dreiser’s closest identification with his heritage, though he continues to feel “isolated personally and culturally.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Bardeleben, Renate von. “The Thousand and Second Nights in 19th-Century American Writing: Echoes in the Work of Irving, Poe, Twain, and Dreiser.” Festgabe fur Hans-Rudolph Singer. FAS/Publikationen des Fachbereichs Angewandte Sprachwissenschaft der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz in Germersheim: Reihe A, Abhandlungen und Sammelbäande. Ed. Martin Forstner. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1991. 855-86. Discusses how nineteenth-century writers, lacking any direct knowledge of Arabic culture, relied upon the “secondhand image” supplied by the Thousand and One Nights. Finds that Twain’s Life on the Mississippi establishes the “pattern” of describing American cities in terms of Aladdin’s lamp, a pattern Dreiser adapts to his naturalistic enterprise in Sister Carrie to express “the magic and mysterious forces” that rule human destiny.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Barrineau, Nancy Warner. “Standard Bibliography Revised and Expanded.” Review of Theodore Dreiser: A Primary Bibliography and Reference Guide, Second Ed., ed. Donald Pizer, Richard W. Dowell, and Frederic E. Rusch. Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991): 42-44. 

Barrineau, Nancy Warner. “The Second Issue of Ev’ry Month: Early Roots of Dreiser’s Fiction.” Dreiser Studies 22.1 (1991): 23-32. Shows how Dreiser’s editorial comments anticipate the aesthetic revealed in Sister Carrie. Focuses on Dreiser’s rejection of European models, his embrace of American theater, his attempt at writing towards a mixed-gender audience, and his positive attitude towards social and industrial progress.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Boasberg, Leonard W. “Theater’s Big ‘Sister’ People’s Light’s Massive Production, Based on Theodore Dreiser’s ‘Sister Carrie,’ Runs Six Hours, Has 250 Characters and 19 Actors. It’s ” ‘Our ‘Nicholas Nickleby,’ ” Says One of the Founders of the Company.” Philadelphia Inquirer 31 March 31 1991, pg. G1. Review of The People’s Light and Theater Company’s production of Sister Carrie. 

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. Review of Free and Other Stories, by Theodore Dreiser in Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke, ed. Eberhard Bethge et al. 10:396-397 17 vols. 1986-1999. Vol. 10. Barcelona, Berlin, Amerika 1928-1931. Munich: Chr. Kaiser, 1991. In German. 

Brennan, Stephen C. “The Financier: Dreiser’s Marriage of Heaven and Hell.” Studies in American Fiction 19.1 (1991): 55-69. Argues that Dreiser was inspired by Ernst Haeckel’s The Riddle of the Universe to create a new mythology based on outmoded Christian patterns. Finds Cowperwood both Satanic and Christlike in his rises and falls and in his creation of a personal moral system in an amoral universe.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Casciato, Arthur D. “Dictating Silence: Textual Subversion in Dreiser’s Soviet Diary.” Theodore Dreiser Issue. Papers on Language and Literature 27 (spring 1991): 174-90. Traces the impact of the sexual on the textual in the construction of Dreiser’s diary of his 1928 trip to the Soviet Union. Discusses the merging of Dreiser’s voice and that of his secretary Ruth Kennell in the diary and Dreiser’s later removal of Kennell’s presence in the 1928 Liveright edition of Dreiser Looks at Russia.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Cassidy, Thomas John. “Desire and Representation in Twentieth Century American Realism.” Ph.D. dissertation, State U of New York, Binghamton, 1991. DAI 52 (1991): 914A. Finds in Sister Carrie and works by Cather, Hurston, and Morrison a critique of “male-authored marriage” that is also an “analogous critique of forms of representation” that posit the dominance of subject over object. Concludes that these works implicitly valorize “community-based relationships” and a “community of voices” with which to express “reality.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Cassuto, Leonard. “From the 1890s to the 1990s: Sister Carrie on the Modern Stage.” Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991): 26-32. Reviews 1991 production of Sister Carrie by The People’s Light and Theater Co. in Malvern, Pennsylvania.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Clark, Mike. “New in Stores.” USA Today. 7 June 1991, pg. 3D. Provides brief critical comments about the film “Carrie” occasioned by a release of a DVD of the film. 

Coltrane, Robert. “The Crafting of Dreiser’s Twelve Men.” Theodore Dreiser Issue. Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991): 191-206. Analyzes Dreiser’s selection and ordering of sketches for Twelve Men and his revision of previously published material. Examines the autobiographical elements of the sketches, proposing that the characters are “consistent with others in the Dreiser canon.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55.

Das, Dilip K. “The American Family in Transition: Some Turn-of-the-Century Images.” Indian Journal of American Studies 21.2 (1991): 47-54.

Dearborn, Mary V. The Happiest Man Alive A Biography of Henry Miller. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991. Shows that Miller’s first sustained piece, Clipped Wings, a potboiler based on his stint as a manager for Western Union dispatch, was inspired by Dreiser’s Twelve Men. 

Den Tandt, Christophe. “Animistic Economics in Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie.” BELL: Belgian Essays on Language and Literature (1991): 88-99.

Dowell, Richard. “Dreiser Meets Fitzgerald . . . Maybe.” Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991): 20-25. Surveys six accounts of a party hosted by Dreiser in the winter of 1922 23, at which Dreiser and F. Scott Fitzgerald allegedly became acquainted. Concludes from accounts by H. L. Mencken, Sherwood Anderson, Carl Van Vechten, Llewelyn Powys, Ernest Boyd, and Burton Rascoe that the event was a “dismal failure.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55.

Eby, Clare Virginia. “Cowperwood and Witla, Artists in the Marketplace.” Dreiser Studies 22.1 (1991): 1-22. Maintains that among Dreiser’s protagonists, Frank Cowperwood in The Financier and Eugene Witla in The “Genius” most fully represent Dreiser’s vision of “the genius,” though Cowperwood transcends Witla as an artist. Concludes that, in Dreiser’s view, wealth may lead to art but art will not lead to wealth.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55; Literature Online (Chadwyck-Healey)

El-Baaj, Habib. “Thomas Hardy and Theodore Dreiser: A Comparative Study.” Diss. U of Glasgow, 1991. DAI 52 (1991): 2134A-2135A.

Erstein, Hap. “Fine ‘Sister Carrie’ Leads Philly Drama Renaissance.” Washington Times 25 Apr. 1991: E1-2. Reviews production of Sister Carrie by People’s Light and Theater Company, Malvern, Pennsylvania.

Fink, Guido. ” ‘Inesprimere l’esprimibile’: tre romanzi americani del 1925.” Rivista di studi nord-americani 2 (1991): 37-52. In Italian. Discusses Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, Dos Passos’s Manhattan Transfer, and Drieser’s An American Tragedy.

Fleming, Bruce E. Passivity and the Unhappy (Wo)Man: Mental States in Sister Carrie. Indian Journal of American Studies 21.2 (1991): 39-45

Fluck, Winfried. “Sentimentality and the Changing Functions of Fiction.” Sentimentality in Modern Literature and Popular Culture. Ed. Winfried Herget. Tübingen, Germany: Gunter Narr, 1991. 28-32.

Friedl, Bettina. “Die Inszenierung im Spiegel: Aspekte Pikarischen Erzählens bei Theodore Dreiser und Edith Wharton,” pp. 217-34, in Frauen und Frauendarstellung in der englischen und amerikanischen Literatur [Women and Images of Women in British and American Literature]. Ed. Therese Fischer-Seidel. Tübinger Beiträge zur Anglistik. Tübingen: Gunter, Narr, 1991.

Gammel, Irene. “Sexualizing Power in Naturalism: Theodore Dreiser and Frederick Philip Grove.” Ph.D. dissertation, McMaster U (Ont., Canada), 1991. vii + 329 pp. DAI 54 (1993): 510A. Published as Sexualizing Power in Naturalism: Theodore Dreiser and Frederic Philip Grove. Calgary (Alberta, Canada): U of Calgary P, 1994. Examines representations of power in Dreiser’s and Grove’s fiction.
Source: Elder, Shane and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1993-1997.” Dreiser Studies 31.2 (fall 2000): 39-57; McMaster U, online catalogue

Gammel, Irene. “The City’s Eye of Power: Panopticism and Specular Prostitution in Dreiser’s New York and Grove’s Berlin.” Canadian Review of American Studies 22.2 (1991): 211-27. Compares the treatment of women in the city in Dreiser’s Sister Carrie and Frederick Philip Grove’s Fanny Essler.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Gatti, Rose. “What Dreiser’s Handwriting Reveals.” Theodore Dreiser Issue. Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991), pp. 207-13. Analyzes Dreiser’s handwriting in the manuscript of “A Story of Stories.” Concludes that Dreiser was a man of “deep, unexpressed emotions” who felt sympathy towards human weaknesses and anger at the “the powers that be.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Gelfant, Blanche H. “Speaking Her Own Piece: Emma Goldman and the Discursive Skeins of Autobiography.” American Autobiography: Retrospect and Prospect. Ed. Paul John Eakin. Wisconsin Studies in American Autobiography. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1991. 235-66. Compares the theme and style of anarchist Emma Goldman’s autobiography Living My Life and Dreiser’s Sister Carrie, which have similar beginnings. Concludes that Dreiser was one of many influences on Goldman’s book, having told her that she “had to” write it. Reprinted: Gelfant, Blanche H. “Speaking Her Own Piece: Emma Goldman and the Discursive Skeins of Autobiography.” Cross-Cultural Reckonings: A Triptych of Russian, American, and Canadian Texts. Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture. Cambridge; England; New York: Cambridge UP, 1995. 69-96.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Gerber, Philip. ” ‘A Beautiful Legal Problem’: Albert Lévitt on An American Tragedy.” Theodore Dreiser Issue. Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991), 214-42. Introduces lawyer Albert Lévitt’s 1926 prize-winning essay, “Was Clyde Griffiths Guilty of Murder in the First Degree?”

Gordon, Mary. “Good Boys and Dead Girls.” Good Boys and Dead Girls. New York: Viking, 1991. 3-23. Places Clyde Griffiths in a tradition of “boy killers,” such as Faulkner’s Joe Christmas and Updike’s Rabbit Angstrom, who retain their innocence despite causing the deaths of women who restrain their freedom. Argues that Dreiser’s melodramatic handling of Roberta’s death violates the novel’s realistic “moral vision,” which lures readers into identifying with Clyde.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Hakutani, Yoshinobu. “New Approaches to Carrie.” Review of New Essays on Sister Carrie, edited by Donald Pizer. Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991): 37-41. 

Hapke, Laura. “Dreiser and the Tradition of the American Working Girl Novel.” Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991): 2-19. Agrees with previous scholarship that Dreiser accurately portrays the “economic, social, and psychological forces” that shaped the lives of wage-earning women. Finds “ambivalence” in Dreiser’s treatment of the type, however, since his Carrie Meeber and Jennie Gerhardt, like the heroines of contemporary labor novels, are “too refined” to remain long in the world of laboring women and require rescue by a male savior.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Hayne, Barrie. “Dreiser’s An American Tragedy.” Rough Justice: Essays on Crime and Literature. Ed. M. L. Friedland. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1991. 170-86. Explores whether An American Tragedy is the “sociological treatise” Sergei Eisenstein was denied the chance to film in 1930 or “the simple detective story” or love story Paramount wanted. Concludes that Eisenstein was largely correct and that the book is a “crime novel” governed by the “presuppositions of naturalism.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Henry, Sarah M. “The Strikers and Their Sympathizers: Brooklyn in the Trolley Strike of 1895,” Labor History 32.3 (1991): 329- 53. Not about Dreiser per se, but the strike was the one described in Sister Carrie. 

Hochman, Barbara. “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Actress: The Rewards of Representation in Sister Carrie.” New Essays on Sister Carrie. The American Novel. Ed. Donald Pizer. 43-64. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge UP, 1991. Refutes Dreiser’s claims that he wrote Sister Carrie largely in bursts of solitary inspired creativity. Asserts that Carrie’s career as actress reveals both Dreiser’s stake in maintaining “creative autonomy” and his “need for editorial and moral support” from a “responsive audience.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Horwitz, Howard. “Dreiser, Debs, and Deindividualization: Hypothecation, Union, Representation.” By the Law of Nature: Form and Value in Nineteenth Century America. New York; Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991. 192-217. Examines Dreiser’s Trilogy of Desire in the context of Emersonian doctrine.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Hurm, Gerd. “Theodore Dreiser: Sister Carrie.” Fragmented Urban Images: The American City in Modern Fiction from Stephen Crane to Thomas Pynchon. Neue Studien zur Anglistik und Amerikanistik. Frankfurt am Maim: Peter Lang, 1991. 133-65.

Hussman, Lawrence E. “More Grist for Dreiser’s Mill.” Review of Dreiser issue, Papers on Language and Literature (vol. 27, no. 2, 1991). Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991): 44-45. 

Hutchisson, James M. “The Creation (and Reduction) of The Financier.” Theodore Dreiser Issue. Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991): 243-59. Offers a textual history of The Financier. Discusses the radical alterations in the novel from its inception in 1911 through the much shorter 1927 edition. Scrutinizes editorial revisions by Ripley Hitchcock and H. L. Mencken and Dreiser’s desire to comply with them.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

James, Harold. “The Literary Financier.” The American Scholar 60 (1991): 251-57. Tracks the rise and fall of the financier as a prominent character type in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Considers Dreiser’s The Financier as a “particularly accurate” depiction of the turn-of-the-century Philadelphia Stock Exchange. Compares Dreiser’s financier with those of Trollope, Balzac, and Thomas Mann.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Jameson, Frederic. Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham: Duke UP, 1991. 200-210. Agrees with Walter Benn Michaels, in The Gold Standard and the Logic of Naturalism (1987), that Dreiser’s work expresses rather than critiques the ideology of consumer capitalism. Argues, however, that Dreiser’s very failure to escape the “infernal machine” of market culture reveals a potential for radical change from within that culture.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Keeble, Robert Leslie. “Dreiser’s Method: Triangles, Motive, Tension, and Contrast in Sister Carrie and An American Tragedy.” Master’s Thesis. Stephen F. Austin State U, 1991. vii + 104 pp. MAI 30 (1992): 29. Examines Dreiser’s method of using love triangles to depict his characters’ motives, regulate their tension, and reveal the contrasts in their lives. Focuses on Sister Carrie and An American Tragedy.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55; Ralph W. Steen Library, Stephen F. Austin State U, online catalogue; ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Kimmel, David P. “Crane, Sinclair, and Dreiser in the Temperance Tradition.” Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State U, 1991, 294 pp. DAI 52 (1991): 1747A-48A Explores the relationship between literary forms and the temperance tradition in four turn-of-the century novels, including Sister Carrie.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55.

Kingston, Jeremy. “US Theater: Premiere Weekend Philadelphia.” London Times 1 May 1991. Reviews production of Sister Carrie by People’s Light and Theater Company, Malvern, Pennsylvania.

Lehan, Richard. “Sister Carrie: the City, the Self, and the Modes of Narrative Discourse.” New Essays on Sister Carrie. The American Novel. Ed. Donald Pizer. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge UP, 1991. 65-85. Argues that Sister Carrie should be read as a narrative in the “naturalistic mode,” as an “exercise” in rendering Herbert Spencer’s deterministic universe of “matter in motion.” Rejects New Historicist readings by Walter Benn Michaels and June Howard treating Carrie as a metaphor for capitalism or history, respectively. Concludes that an edition recognizing the novel’s naturalistic mode would be a “composite” of the 1981 Pennsylvania Edition and the first edition.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Lenard, G. T. “New Lives, New Names: Dreiser’s Carrie.” Midwestern Miscellany 19 (1991): 29-36. Discusses how the names given Carrie by others mark the changes in her life and in her social roles. Concludes that Hurstwood’s “nameless” corpse reveals his absolute loss of identity while Carrie’s choosing the stage name of Madenda indicates a limited assumption of power and freedom.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Lingeman, Richard. “Airmail Interview: Richard Lingeman.” Dreiser Society Newsletter 1.1 (1991): 2-5. 

Lingeman, Richard. “Mencken, Dreiser, and God.” Menckeniana 119 (1991): 1-9. Recounts the stormy friendship between Dreiser and Mencken, positing that “a hairline crack” in their friendship occurred very early on when the “pagan” Mencken’s attack on prayer offended Dreiser with his lingering “craving for the absolute.” Finds that this essential opposition, along with an “aristocratic-peasant” enmity, eventually became a “geological fault,” though mutual love and respect endured to the end.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Lingeman, Richard. “Theater.” The Nation 27 May 1991: 711-12. Reviews production of Sister Carrie by People’s Light and Theater Company, Malvern, Pennsylvania.

Livingston, Paisley. Literature and Rationality: Ideas of Agency in Theory and Fiction. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 1991. 89-149 passim. Discusses basic questions about agency and rationality raised in the fiction of Dreiser, focusing on The Financier, An American Tragedy, and Sister Carrie.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Lo, Aboubacry Samba. “Theodore Dreiser’s Complex Vision of Success and Failure in ‘Sister Carrie’ and ‘The Financier.’” Master’s thesis, l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal, 1991.

Lutz, Tom. “Making It Big: Theodore Dreiser, Sex, and Success.” American Nervousness, 1903: An Anecdotal History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1991. 38-62. Considers Dreiser’s treatment of his own neurasthenia of 1903 (in An Amateur Laborer) in the context of a culture obsessed with success and military conquest. Also traces “neurasthenic themes” in The “Genius” and An American Tragedy.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Major 20th-Century Writers: A Selection of Sketches from Contemporary Authors. Ed. Bryan Ryan. Gale Research, 1991. 871-76.

Masters, Marcia Lee. “Ghostwriting for Theodore Dreiser.” Chicago Tribune 10 November 1991, sec. 10: 33. An article by the daughter of Edgar Lee Masters about her associations with Dreiser, notably in Los Angeles near the end of his life. Provides details about her ghostwriting of stories that were published under Dreiser name in Esquire.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

McNamara, Kevin Richard. “Urban Verbs: Representations of the City in American Modernism.” Ph.D., dissertation, U of California, Irvine, 1991. 2 vols. vii + 397 pp. DAI 52A (1991): 1331A. Discusses Sister Carrie in relation to James’s The American Scene, Williams’s Paterson, and other works. Explores how the circulation of money, desire, and other “objects” either “aids or problematizes” efforts to give “unity” to the city’s diverse elements.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55; U of California, Irvine, library, online catalogue

Menzer, Paul. “Bibliographical Anomalies in the Foreword of The Color of a Great City.” Dreiser Studies 22.1 (1991): 33-38. Demonstrates that Dreiser’s foreword to his 1923 collection offers “an apocryphal version of the articles’ origins” by claiming much later dates of composition than the actual ones. Suggests that Dreiser was hiding the fact that many of these journalistic pieces were “quick copy written for ready cash” during his free-lance days.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Michaels, Walter Benn. “An American Tragedy, or the Promise of American Life.” The New American Studies: Essays from Representations. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991. 171-98. Argues that An American Tragedy illustrates the erasure of difference between the individual and the social. Discusses Clyde Griffiths’ attempt to “drift” across classes while maintaining his individuality, and concludes that one has to belong to a class to be considered an individual.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Mishra, Ramesh Chandra. “Theodore Dreiser and the City: A Study of Ambivalent Response.” Ph.D. dissertation, Utkal University, India, 1991. 

Mitchell, Lee Clark. Introduction. Jennie Gerhardt, by Theodore Dreiser. New York: Oxford UP, 1991. ix-xxx.

Mitchell, Lee Clark. Introduction. Sister Carrie, by Theodore Dreiser. New York: Oxford UP, 1991. vii-xxiv.

Mizruchi, Susan. “Fiction and the Sense of Society.” The Columbia History of the American Novel. Ed. Emery Elliott (General Editor); Cathy N. Davidson, Patrick O’Donnell, Valerie Smith, and Christopher P. Wilson (Associate Editors). New York: Columbia UP, 1991. 189-215. Argues: “The works of Theodore Dreiser offer a different perspective on naturalism by highlighting a modern capitalist social order that has subsumed the natural. In contrast to Norris’s degenerate (and eminently expendable) social types, Dreiser’s fiction features functional types who become dysfunctional. … Thus, where Norris’s naturalism tends to corroborate a social evolutionary scheme, Dreiser’s naturalism, by showing how such a scheme justifies and entrenches a man-made social system, tends to challenge it.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Mizuguchi, Shigeo. “Nippon niokeru Theodore Dreiser no Shoshi.” [Bibliography of Theodore Dreiser in Japan] Geibei Bunqaku [English and American Literature] 51 (1991): 157-206.

Morozkina, E.A. Problemy iskusstva v tvorchestve T. Draizera. Istoria i kultura SShA v amerikanskoi literature i zhurnalistike. Tezisy dokladov. [Aspects of the art and work of T. Dreiser. History and culture of the U.S.A. in American literature and journalism. Lecture notes.] Moscow: MGU, 1991, pp. 35-36. Морозкина Е.А. Проблемы искусства в творчестве Т.Драйзера // История и культура США в американской литературе и журналистике. Тезисы докладов. Москва: МГУ, 1991, c.35-36. 

Mory, Kathrin. “The Construction of Inevitability in Theodore Dreiser’s An American Tragedy.” Thesis (licentiate), U Basel, Switzerland, 1991. Liz. Arbeit Basel.

Muller, Kurt. Identitat und Rolle bei Theodore Dreiser: Eine Untersuchung des Romanwerks unter Rollertheoretischem Aspekt Beiträge zur englischen und amerikanischen Literatur. Paperborn, Germany: Schoningh, 1991. A revision of the author’s Habilitationsschrift — Universität Freiburg i. Br., 1987. Discusses role playing in Sister Carrie, The Financier, The Titan, and An American Tragedy. Places the novels in the context of a society whose fragmentation prevents the development of a coherent self. Applies analysis of the novels to Dreiser’s own life.
Source: Sauer, Thomas. “Dreiser’s Novels and Role Theory.” Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991): 33-37; Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (fall 1999): 39-55; WorldCat; Literature Online (Chadwyck-Healey)

Murphy, James F. The Proletarian Moment: The Controversy over Leftism in Literature. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1991. 142-47, passim. Discusses Case of Clyde Griffiths, the stage adaptation by Erwin Piscator of Dreiser’s An American Tragedy, as an example of “proletarian” or “political” theater. Also contains scattered references to Dreiser as a supporter of leftist causes and of the reaction of leftist critics to his works. 

Myers, Robert M. “Dreiser’s Copy of McTeague.” Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991): 260-67. Concludes from Dreiser’s bookplate and his typical marginalia that a copy of the 1903 edition of McTeague in the University of Miami library once belonged to Dreiser. Surveys Dreiser’s accounts of reading McTeague and finds no direct influence on Sister Carrie.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Nathan, David. “Philly Goes for the Long Shots.” Jewish Chronicle 3 May 1991. Reviews production of Sister Carrie by People’s Light and Theater Company, Malvern, Pennsylvania.

New Essays on Sister Carrie. Ed. Donald Pizer. The American Novel. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge UP, 1991. Includes four essays and an introduction, annotated elsewhere in this bibliography.

Newlin, Keith. “Melodramatic Naturalism: London, Garland, Dreiser, and the Campaign to Reform the American Theater.” Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U, 1991, xiii + 309 pp. DAI 52 (1992): 2925A Challenges the idea that naturalistic drama is an offspring of realism and that Eugene O’Neill was the first serious American dramatist. Argues that Dreiser and others employed the conventions of melodrama to express evolutionary thought, creating an experimental “hybrid” form dealing with subjects previously confined to the novel and preparing the way for O’Neill.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55; Indiana University library, online catalogue

Niven, Penelope. Carl Sandburg: A Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1991 246, 268-269, 460 Quotes from correspondence among Dreiser, Sandburg, and Edgar Lee Masters. 

Nurul Huda A.Razzaq. “Naturalistic Strain in the Novels of Theodore Dreiser and Naguib Mahfouz.” Ph.D. dissertation, Osmania University, India, 1991. 

Oriard, Michael. Sporting with the Gods: The Rhetoric of Play and Game in American Culture. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge UP, 1991. passim. 

Pietkiewicz, Karen Judith. “Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie: A Study of Transformation and Change in the Artistic Feminine Psyche.” Master’s thesis, Lakehead U, Canada, 1991. 104 pp. MAI 31 (1993): 83. 

Pizer, Donald, Richard W. Dowell, and Frederic E. Rusch. Theodore Dreiser: A Primary Bibliography and Reference Guide. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1991. Second edition of the authoritative bibliography.

 

Pizer, Donald. “Dreiser and the Naturalistic Drama of Consciousness.” Journal of Narrative Technique 21.2 (1991): 202-11. Argues that, contrary to prevailing criticism, naturalistic novelists did often “seek to write a drama of consciousness.” Focusing on moments of crisis in the lives of George Hurstwood, Lester Kane, and Clyde Griffiths, demonstrates Dreiser’s growing sophistication in rendering an internal drama of conflicting desires by means of “concrete analogues,” whether metaphorical or literal.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Pizer, Donald. Introduction. New Essays on Sister Carrie. The American Novel. Ed. Donald Pizer. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge UP, 1991, pp. 1-22.

Pizer, Donald. Preface. Sister Carrie: An Authoritative Text, Backgrounds and Sources, Criticism. 2nd ed. Ed. Donald Pizer. Norton Critical Editions. New York: Norton, 1991, pp. viii-x. Briefly surveys the critical history of Sister Carrie and defends the use of the 1900 first edition as copy-text as opposed to the holograph, the copy-text for the 1981 Pennsylvania Edition.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Plank, Kathryn M. “Dreiser’s Real American Tragedy.” Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991): 268-87. Examines Dreiser’s 1935 article “I Find the Real American Tragedy” to debunk the myth that An American Tragedy typifies a pattern Dreiser found in the Gillette case and in the several other actual murder cases he studied over the years. Argues that the “paradigm” Dreiser finds in these cases is actually his own creation and derives from his own experiences and social attitudes.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Plank, Kathryn M. “Introduction to The ‘Rake.’ ” Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991): 140-44. Describes the incoherent state of the manuscript of this early attempt at An American Tragedy, based on the Molineaux murder case. Argues that Dreiser could not complete the novel because he could not reconcile Molineaux’s high social status with the Clyde Griffiths-like yearnings of his protagonist.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Review of Theodore Dreiser. Vol. 2: An American Journey, 1908-1945, by Richard Lingeman. American Literature 63 (Sep 1991): 555-56. 

Review of Theodore Dreiser. Vol. 2: An American Journey, 1908-1945, by Richard Lingeman. Illinois Historical Journal 84 (Winter 1991): 283. 

Richenderfer, Dolly. “Theodore Dreiser, Anti-Religionist Religionist: The Religiosity of Theodore Dreiser.” Master’s Thesis. Eastern Washington U, 1991. vi + 83 pp.

Ridley, Clifford A. “A Dreiser Novel Comes to the Stage.” The Philadelphia Inquirer 8 April 1991, pg. C3. Review of The People’s Light and Theater Company’s adaptation of Sister Carrie. 

Riggio, Thomas P. “Carrie’s Blues.” New Essays on Sister Carrie. Ed. Donald Pizer. The American Novel. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. 23-41. Considers Dreiser a “psychological realist” who expressed his own “depressive personality” in Carrie’s pervasive melancholia. Traces this melancholia to childhood deprivations and argues that Carrie cannot establish lasting bonds because her “primary relation to home and family is full of rebellion and shame.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Riggio, Thomas P. “Dreiser’s Final Hours.” Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991): 300-04. Presents extensive excerpts from the diary of Dreiser’s wife Helen Richardson to provide “the only first-hand account of Dreiser’s final hours.” See also McCoy, Esther. “The Death of Dreiser.” Grand Street 7 (Winter): 73 -85. (Reprinted: Performances and Reality: Essays from Grand Street. Ed. Ben Sonnenberg. New Brunswick Rutgers UP, pp. 27-39.)
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Riggio, Thomas P. Review of Selected Magazine Articles of Theodore Dreiser: Life and Art in the American 1890s, ed Yoshinobu Hakutani. Resources for American Literary Study 17.2 (1991): 318-21.

Rose, Lloyd. “Smashing ‘Sister Carrie.’ ” Washington Post 23 April 1991: E1. Reviews production of Sister Carrie by People’s Light and Theater Company, Malvern, Pennsylvania.

Rubin, Merle. “To Think, To Feel, To Read.” Christian Science Monitor 1 August 1991: 16. Uses “Dreiser’s assertion that the world is divided into two kinds of people: those who think and those who feel” as a starting point for a brief analysis of two analogous schools of fiction (in that they represent a similar dichotomy) represented by Jane Austen and Emily Bronte.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Ruland, Richard, and Malcolm Bradbury. From Puritanism to Postmodernism: A History of American Literature. New York: Viking Penguin, 1991. 241-43, 247-48 passim.

Rusch, Frederic E. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1989.” Dreiser Studies 22.1 (1991): 39-44.

Rusch, Frederic E. “The Dummy of The Hand of the Potter.” Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991): 288-99. Demonstrates that the 1918 publisher’s dummy is based on the missing unrevised galleys and thus, when compared to the holograph and revised page proofs, offers clues as to the nature and extent of Dreiser’s revisions before and after submitting the play to Boni and Liveright.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Rusch, Frederic E. Review of 1989 Penguin edition of Jennie Gerhardt, by Theodore Dreiser. Dreiser Studies 22.1 (1991): 48-49.

Rusch, Frederic E. Review of Norton Critical Edition of Sister Carrie, 2nd edition. Dreiser Studies 22.1 (1991): 50-51.

Sauer, Thomas. “Dreiser’s Novels and Role Theory.” Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991). 33-37. Review of Identität und Rolle bei Theodore Dreiser: Eine Untersuchung des Romanwerks unter Rollentheoretischen Aspekt, by Kurt Müller. 

” ‘Sister Carrie’: Breaking Walls and Traditions.” People’s Light Journal (Malvern, Pa.) 1 (1991): 1-2. Reviews production of Sister Carrie by People’s Light and Theater Company, Malvern, Pennsylvania.

Smith, James F. “Tom Wolfe’s Bonfire of the Vanities: A Dreiser Novel for the 1980’s.” Journal of American Culture 14.3 (1991): 43-51. Finds parallels between Dreiser’s Sister Carrie and Wolfe’s Bonfire of the Vanities. Reprinted in Tom Wolfe. Ed. Harold Bloom Modern Critical Views. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2001. 135-49.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

“Snooty Putdowns?” Dreiser Studies 22.2 (1991): 46-50. Presents an exchange of letters between Robert H. Elias and Arun Mukherjee in which Elias defends himself against Mukherjee’s charge that he initiated a trend of “snooty putdowns” of Dreiser and Mukherjee defends her original contention.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Song, In-Yong. “Siodo doraijo ui sisto keri wa jeni gohato yongu: jayonjuui wa chowoljuui rul jungsimuro” [A Study of Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie and Jennie Gerhardt: In terms of naturalism and Emersonianism]. Master’s thesis, Seoul National University, Korea, 1991. In Korean. 송인영.Theodore Dreiser? Sister Carrie? Jennie Gerhardt 연구: 자연주의와 초월주의를 중심으로.석사학위논문.서울대학교, 1991. 

Stenerson, Douglas C. “Some Impressions of the Buddha: Dreiser and Sir Edwin Arnold’s ‘The Light of Asia.’ ” Canadian Review of American Studies 22.3 (1991): 387-405. Demonstrates the influence of Arnold’s poem on Dreiser’s understanding of Buddhism and suggests parallels between Buddhism and Dreiser’s own beliefs.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Stillinger Jack. Multiple Authorship and the Myth of Solitary Genius. New York: Oxford, 1991. 157-62 passim. Considers Sister Carrie “an epitomizing example” of “collaborative authorship” and criticizes the editors of the Pennsylvania Edition for attempting to produce what is only “a hypothetical ideal,” a purely authorial text based on the holograph.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Takeda, Miyoko. “Henry David Thoreau — Theodore Dreiser: Transcending the Natural World.” BTSJ 17 (199l): 11-15. 

Takeda, Miyoko. The Quest for the Reality of Life: Dreiser’s Spiritual and Esthetical Pilgrimage. American University Studies IV: English Language and Literature. New York: Peter Lang, 1991. Analyzes The “Genius,” The Bulwark, and The Stoic as stages in Dreiser’s search for an absolute “Reality.” Finds a movement from the aesthetic to the spiritual, with Dreiser finally arriving at a form of “Dreiserian Hinduism” that reconciles “the beauty of women and the beauty of Brahman.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Tebbel, John and Mary Ellen Zuckerman. The Magazine in America, 1741-1990 New York; Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991 101-02, 118. Provides information about Dreiser’s editorial career at the Delineator and (very briefly) Broadway magazine. Discusses improvements Dreiser made in the Delineator and quotes from a passage by one of the magazine’s contributors, Charles Hanson Towne, describing Dreiser as editor. 

“Theodore Dreiser 1871-1945.” Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia of American Literature, First Edition. Ed. George Perkins, Barbara Perkins, and Phillip Leininger. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991. 

“Theodore Dreiser 1871-1945.” Contemporary Authors. A bio-bibliographical guide to current writers in fiction, general nonfiction, poetry, journalism, drama, motion pictures, television, and other fields, Volume 132. Detroit: Gale Research, 1991. 

“Theodore Dreiser 1871-1945.” Magill’s Survey of American Literature. Ed. Frank N. Magill. North Bellmore, NY: Marshall Cavendish, 1991. 

“Theodore Dreiser 1871-1945.” The Facts on File Encyclopedia of the Twentieth Century. Ed. John Drexel. New York: Facts on File, 1991. 

“Theodore Dreiser 1871-1945.” The Reader’s Companion to American History. Ed. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1991. 

Theodore Dreiser Issue. Papers on Language and Literature 27.2 (1991): 139-304. Ed. James L.W. West III. A special issue devoted to Dreiser. Contains 11 previously unpublished items that are cited and annotated individually in this bibliography.

Trachtenberg, Alan. “Who Narrates? Dreiser’s Presence in Sister Carrie.” New Essays on Sister Carrie. Ed. Donald Pizer. The American Novel. 87-122. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge UP, 1991. Discovers in Sister Carrie a “hybrid narrative-discursive method” that reveals the unconscious feelings and desires of his inarticulate characters and transvalues values by establishing a perspective both inside and outside “the popular, the demotic, the vulgar.” Finds Dreiser’s treatment of consciousness strikingly similar to that of William James.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Traister, Daniel. “Dreiser and Libraries.” PACSCL News (Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries newsletter) 1.2 (1991): 1-8.

Tuerk, Richard. “The American Spectator Symposium: Was Dreiser Anti-Semitic?” Prospects 16 (1991): 367-89. Examines Dreiser’s public and private statements about Jews during the mid-1930s. Concludes that despite his denials of anti-Semitism Dreiser consistently expressed anti-Semitic attitudes that “hurt the Jews markedly at one of the worst times in history for a person of his stature to do so.”
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Updike, John. “Not Quite Adult.” New Yorker 66 (14 January 1991): 89-92. Review of Theodore Dreiser, Volume 2: An American Journey, 1908-1945 by Richard Lingeman. Reprinted Updike, John. More Matter: Essays and Criticism. New York: Knopf, 1999. 509-15.

Waldmeir, John Christian. “Individual Trinities: Time, God, and Mammon in The American Trilogy.” Diss. U of Chicago, Divinity School, 1991. iii + 245 pp. Discusses Norris’s Epic of the Wheat, Dreiser’s Trilogy of Desire, and Dos Passos’s U.S.A. trilogy.
Source: Elder, Shane, Frederic E. Rusch, and Stephen C. Brennan. “A Dreiser Checklist, 1991.” Dreiser Studies 30.2 (1999): 39-55

Wallace, Jack E. Review of Theodore Dreiser: An American Journey, 1908-1945 by Richard Lingeman (1990). American Literature 63 (1991): 555-56.

Weisner, Janice Beth. “Turn-of-the-Century City Sketches of Edwin Porter and Theodore Dreiser.” Master’s thesis, Clark U, 1991. v + 101 pp.

Winchell, Mark Royden. Neoconservative Criticism: Norman Podhoretz, Kenneth S. Lynn, and Joseph Epstein Boston: G. K. Hall, 1991. Twayne’s United States Authors Series 57-58, 64-65, 138-40. Summarizes and discusses critical views on Dreiser of the critics Kenneth S. Lynn and Joseph Epstein. 

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s